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NUCLEAR STRUCTURE AND CHEMICAL BOND


NUCLEAR STRUCTURE AND CHEMICAL BOND
Ø Nuclear energy is an energy that is inherent in every atom.
Ø Fission is used in all existing nuclear power plants.
Ø Fuel used in nuclear reactor is Uranium.
Ø In nuclear reactors,uranium atoms inside the nuclear reactor are broken down by controlled chain reaction.
Ø The reaction diluent slows the movement of neutrons.
Ø Heavy Water(D2O),graphite or beryllium oxide is used as a diluents.
Ø Of these,heavy water is considered to be the best diluents.
Ø Natural radioactivity was discovered in the year 1896 by the French scientist Henri Becquerel.
Ø The continuous generation of energy in the Sun is due to nuclear fusion.
Ø Hydrogen bomb developed by Edward Taylor.
Ø Dalton pronounced the atomic theory of matter.According to him,matter is made up of very small indivisible particles called ‘atoms’.
Ø The attraction forces between two neutrons are: (i)Gravitational force
                                                                                        (ii)Nuclear Force
Ø The electron is a negatively charged particle,whose discovery J.J Thomas did in cathode rays.
Ø Cathode rays are current of Electrons.
Ø The most electrically negative elements is fluorine,while the most electrically positive element is Fosium.
Ø The chemical properties of an element are determined by the number of electrons that move outside the nucleus.
Ø Two elements whose mass of neutron is equal to the mass of hydrogen atom.
Ø Elements that have the same number of protons or atomic number are different and the number of neutrons is called an isothermal.
Ø The three fundamental particles that make up an atom are electron,proton and neutrons.
Ø The proton is a positively charged particle,while the electron is a negatively charged particle.
Ø The sum of the number of neutrons and protons present in the nucleus of an atom is its mass number.
Ø The number of protons present in the nucleus is called atomic number.
Ø Cathode rays are also called electron currents.
Ø The substance does not contain particles are Y-rays.
Ø When the value of the main quantum digit is 4,the orbital quantum no..The possible values of 1 will be 0,1,2 and 3.
Ø 35C17 and 37C17 are called isotopic elements.
PH value of major substances
Substance
PH value
Alcohol
Milk
Seawater
Urine
Vinegar
Saliva
Lemon Juice
Blood
Beer
Tomato juice
Pure water

2.8-3.8
6.5-6.7
7.5-8.4
4.5-8.0
2.5-3.5
6.5-7.5
2.2-2.4
7.4
4.5-5.0
4.0-4.4
7


Ø The protons,electrons and neutrons in the hydrogen atom are 1.0.
Ø If the atomic number of an element is 17,then number of electrons in each shell and subshell of this atom will be 2.8.7.
Ø Oxidation is the cause of a rock turning yellow or red.
Ø The boiling point of water is high because its molecules are bound by hydrogen bonds.
         STRUCTURE OF ATOM
Particle
Symbol
INVENTOR
Electron
Proton
Neutron

e-  or B-
P or 1H1 or P+
n
J.J Thomas
E.Rutherford
 J.Chadwick
Particle
Electron
Proton
Neutron
Mass in gram
9.1095*10-28
1.6726*10-24
1.6750*1024
Charge
-1.6*10-19
+1.6*10-19
0(neutral)


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